Chapter 1. A Quick Tour of the Foundations of Web Apps

Table of Contents

1. The World Wide Web (WWW)
2. HTML and XML
2.1. XML documents
2.2. Unicode and UTF-8
2.3. XML namespaces
2.4. Correct XML documents
2.5. The evolution of HTML
2.6. HTML forms
3. Styling Web Documents and User Interfaces with CSS
4. JavaScript - "the assembly language of the Web"
4.1. JavaScript as an object-oriented language
4.2. Further reading about JavaScript
5. Accessibility for Web Apps
6. Quiz Questions
6.1. Question 1: Well-Formed XML
6.2. Question 2: HTML Forms

If you are already familiar with HTML, XML and JavaScript, you may skip this chapter and immediately start developing a minimal web application by going to the next chapter.

1. The World Wide Web (WWW)

After the Internet had been established in the 1980'ies, Tim Berners-Lee developed the idea and the first implementation of the WWW in 1989 at the European research institution CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The WWW (or, simply, "the Web") is based on the Internet technologies TCP/IP (the Internet Protocol) and DNS (the Domain Name System). Initially, the Web consisted of

  1. the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP),

  2. the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), and

  3. web server programs, acting as HTTP servers, as well as web 'user agents' (such as browsers), acting as HTTP clients.

Later, further important technology components have been added to this set of basic web technologies: