9. Possible Variations and Extensions

9.1. Using IndexedDB as an Alternative to LocalStorage

Instead of using the Local Storage API, the IndexedDB API could be used for locally storing the application data. With Local Storage you only have one database (which you may have to share with other apps from the same domain) and there is no support for database tables (we have worked around this limitation in our approach). With IndexedDB you can set up a specific database for your app, and you can define database tables, called 'object stores', which may have indexes for accessing records with the help of an indexed attribute instead of the standard identifier attribute. Also, since IndexedDB supports larger databases, its access methods are asynchronous and can only be invoked in the context of a database transaction.

Alternatively, for remotely storing the application data with the help of a web API one can either use a back-end solution component or a cloud storage service. The remote storage approach allows managing larger databases and supports multi-user apps.

9.2. Dealing with date/time information using Date and <time>

Assume that our Book model class has an additional attribute publicationDate, the values of which have to be included in HTML tables and forms. While date/time information items have to be formatted as strings in a human-readable form on web pages, preferably in localized form based on the settings of the user's browser, it's not a good idea to store date/time values in this form in a database. Rather we use instances of the pre-defined JavaScript class Date for representing and storing date/time values. In this form, the pre-defined functions toISOString() and toLocaleDateString() can be used for turning Date values into ISO standard date/time strings (of the form "2015-01-27") or to localized date/time strings (like "27.1.2015"). Notice that, for simplicity, we have omitted the time part of the date/time strings.

In summary, a date/time value is expressed in three different forms:

  1. Internally, for storage and computations, as a Date value.

  2. Internally, for annotating localized date/time strings, or externally, for displaying a date/time value in a standard form, as an ISO standard date/time string, e.g., with the help of toISOString().

  3. Externally, for displaying a date/time value in a localized form, as a localized date/time string, e.g., with the help of toLocaleDateString().

When a date/time value is to be included in a web page, we can use the HTML <time> element that allows to display a human-readable representation (typically a localized date/time string) that is annotated with a standard (machine-readable) form of the date/time value.

We illustrate the use of the <time> element with the following example of a web page that includes two <time> elements: one for displaying a fixed date, and another (initially empty) element for displaying the date of today, which is computed with the help of a JavaScript function. In both cases we use the datetime attribute for annotating the displayed human-readable date with the corresponding machine-readable representation.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
 <meta charset="UTF-8" />
 <title>Using the HTML5 Time Element</title>
 <script src="assignDate.js"></script>
 <script>window.addEventListener("load", assignDate);</script>
 <h1>HTML5 Time Element</h1>
 <p>HTML 2.0 was published on <time datetime="1995-11-24">November 24, 1995</time>.</p>
 <p>Today is <time id="today" datetime=""></time>.</p>

This web page loads and executes the following JavaScript function for computing today's date as a Date value and assigning its ISO standard representation and its localized representation to the <time> element:

function assignDate() {
  var dateEl = document.getElementById("today");
  var today = new Date();
  dateEl.textContent = today.toLocaleDateString();
  dateEl.setAttribute("datetime", today.toISOString());